The deepest lakes

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Lakes are one of the natural wonders. Therefore, we will talk about the deepest lakes in the world.

Lake Matano. This lake is of tectonic origin and is located in Indonesia, South Sulawesi. For this area, Matano is an important source of fresh water. It is also the deepest lake in the country, with a maximum depth of 590 meters. From Matano flows the Patea River, which flows through a waterfall into Lake Mahalona. Matano is known for its extremely clean water and rare fish species that descended from a common ancestor. There are also nickel deposits on the shore of the lake.

Crater Lake. This lake is considered the deepest among those located above sea level. It is located in the Volcanic Crater National Park in Oregon, USA. This place itself has incredible beauty. The nearest rocks rise to 500 meters, there are two small islands inside the lake, and the water here is striking in its blueness. It is no wonder that photographers from all over the world are striving here. This lake is also the deepest in the United States, with a maximum depth of 594 meters. The dimensions of the lake are 8 by 9.6 kilometers, while the average depth is 50 meters. The water here is extremely clean, thanks to the melting snow. The lake also has its own mascot - a huge log "Old Man of the Lake", which has been floating in the waters in an upright position for more than a hundred years. Since the water temperature in the lake is low, the tree is well preserved. Crater Lake was featured on the 2005 Oregon Commemorative 25 Cent coin.

Great slave lake. The deepest lake in all of North America is the Great Slave Lake, which is in the northwest of Canada. Its maximum depth is 614 meters, and it spreads over an area of ​​11 thousand square miles. The length of the lake is 480 kilometers, and the width is from 19 to 109. Most of the time - 8 months a year, the lake is frozen. In some places, it is so thick that it can support even a heavy truck. Until 1967, when a permanent highway was built around the lake, it was cars on the ice that delivered food to coastal settlements. Among Europeans, the lake was first explored in 1771 by the British fur trader Hearn. In 1930, the town of Yellowknife appeared on the shores, due to the gold found here. In 1978, the Soviet satellite Kosmos-954 fell in the area of ​​the lake, causing radiation contamination.

Issyk-Kul. This largest lake in the country is called the pearl of Kyrgyzstan. Translated from Kyrgyz "ysyk kol" means "hot lake", as it does not freeze in winter. The lake is located between the northern ridges of the Tien Shan at an altitude of 1609 meters. The water in Issyk-Kul is brackish, its mineralization is 5.9%. The volume of water in the lake is about 1700 km3, and the area is 6236 km2. The deepest lake is 702 meters. The lake is closed, fed by 80 small tributaries. The first mention of Issyk-Kul is found in Chinese chronicles in the 2nd century BC, but scientific study began only in the 19th century by Russian scientists. One of them was N.M. Przhevalsky, who bequeathed to bury himself on the shore of Issyk-Kul. Many interesting stories and legends are associated with the lake. So, in 2006, an archaeological expedition discovered traces of an ancient civilization on its bottom, which existed 2500 years ago. According to one of the legends, a flooded Armenian monastery with the relics of St. Matthew is kept in the lake. Another legend says that it was here that the warriors of Tamerlane built their famous stone pyramids.

Lake Malawi. Another name for the lake is Nyasa. It is the southernmost lake in the East African Rift Valley System, located between Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania. The maximum depth of Malawi is 706 meters, making it the second deepest lake in all of Africa. It runs from south to north, its length is 560 kilometers. But thanks to tropical waters, it has the greatest species diversity among fish from lakes on the planet. Also, the water has a reduced concentration of ions, which is associated with the inflow of waters with a low concentration of salts into the lake. Researchers, having studied the sediments of the main samples of Malawi, proved that over the past 100 thousand years, the water level in the lake has dropped significantly, new lands have occupied forests and semi-deserts. Water losses are associated with surface evaporation (up to 80%) and with the Shire River, flowing from the southern part of Malawi.

Lake San Martin, O'Higgins. The lake has a fjord-like appearance and is located in Patagonia, between the Aysen region and the province of Santa Cruz. In addition to the Argentine name, there is also a Chilean name - O'Higgins. This is the deepest zero of both Americas, the maximum depth here near the O'Higgins glacier is 836 meters. The area of ​​the lake is 1058 km², and above sea level it rises 250 meters. Water comes here with the help of the Mayer River and small streams from the glacier, and the Pasqua River flows out from here, which then flows into the Pacific Ocean. The lake got its name in honor of the national heroes - freedom fighters in South America. Argentina was represented by Jose de San Martino, and Chile by Bernardo O'Higgins. Aretino sleeves are all named after the battles won by San Martino.

Lake Vostok. More than 140 lakes are hidden under the glaciers of the Earth, Vostok is one of them. But it is precisely this that is the largest and deepest. It is located in Antarctica, near the Russian Vostok station. Above the lake there is a layer of ice of 4 kilometers, but it itself is 250 kilometers long and 50 kilometers wide. The maximum depth here is 900 meters. Lake Vostok was discovered in 1996. The average water temperature on the surface here is -3 degrees, but the water does not freeze, since a layer of ice exerts high pressure on it. In the depths, the temperature reaches +10 degrees. Scientists, according to ice samples from the depths, believe that the crust may have an age of over 400 thousand years, therefore, the lake itself could have been chained up 500 thousand years ago. The existence of subglacial lakes in Antarctica was scientifically substantiated in the middle of the 20th century, while the discovery of the "Vostok" became one of the largest geographical discoveries of the century. People try to reach the lake, in particular, having received answers to questions about life in it. Despite the pressure of 300 atmospheres, it is believed that some microorganisms could well adapt to such conditions. Currently, less than 200 meters of ice remains to be drilled to the lake. The experience of exploring the East can provide a sea of ​​useful information, because the conditions here are similar to those that existed millions of years ago, besides, scientists suggest the presence of such lakes on the moons of Jupiter.

Caspian Sea. The largest lake in the world is only in third place in the list of deep water. It is located in the south of Russia, adjacent to the north of Iran. This reservoir is the largest closed on Earth, moreover, with salt water (about 1.2%). Once, more than 5 million years ago, the sea was isolated due to continental drift. The Caspian, like the Black and Mediterranean seas, is an ancient remnant of the Tethys Ocean. The area of ​​the Caspian Sea is 371 thousand km², and the maximum depth is 1025 meters. The sea is endless, and 130 rivers flow into it, the largest of which is the Volga. Such a giant lake simply had to become a place of concentration of rich fauna. There are many sturgeons here, which give caviar, the Caspian seal is interesting, and some fish species are found only here. The sea is a rich source of energy resources. Today, the total cost of gas and oil here is 12 trillion dollars. The coastline of the Caspian Sea belongs to 5 states at once. Navigation is developed here, especially through the Volga and canals there is a possibility of access to the world ocean.

Lake Tanganyika. The deepest lake in Africa is divided between Burundi, DR Congo, Tanzania and Zambia. The maximum depth here is 1470 meters. The lake was discovered by accident in 1858 by the British Richard Burton and John Speke, who were actually looking for the source of the Nile. The length of the lake is 650 kilometers, and its width is 40-80 kilometers. The lake is fed by several channels, and one river flows from here - Lukuga. Coastal landscapes are mostly rocky. The lake is home to hippos, crocodiles, and many waterfowl. Below the level of 200 meters in depth, life practically ceases, due to the layer of hydrogen sulfide. Recently, the lake has become the object of scrutiny after Geographic magazine told about the cold-blooded killer crocodile nicknamed Gustav. It was about 9 meters long and weighed about a ton, causing the death of several dozen people.

Lake Baikal. This lake of tectonic origin is also called the "blue eye of Siberia". It is located in southern Siberia, not far from the border with Mongolia. The lake is known for its maximum depth of 1,642 meters and for being the largest natural reservoir of fresh water. It is calculated that if all the water of the lake is divided into all the inhabitants of Russia, then for each it will have about 160 thousand tons. Baikal is a unique ecosystem; more than 1,700 species of flora and fauna live here, with most of them living only here. The lake is completely surrounded by dense forests and steep mountains, estimated to be 25-30 million years old, which automatically makes the lake the oldest in geological history. This fact makes it even more unique, since lakes of glacial origin usually live up to 15 thousand years. Such a huge reservoir of water with an area of ​​31 thousand km² can be the source of a wide variety of secrets. They say about giant and unusual animals and sturgeons, about the existence of special rogue sea snakes, like the Loch Ness monster.

Watch the video: Deepest Lake on the Planet - The Deepest Lake by DENGUE FEVER


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